intense period of organizational change lies in its immediate future. V aughan 2005). It successfully completed nine milestone missions during its nearly three years of service. A space scientist recalls how it transformed Nasa’s plans to explore beyond Earth.
This paper outlines some of the critical features of NASA’s organization and organizational change, namely path dependence and ‘‘normalization of deviance’’.

NASA also changed its culture, he says, after learning engineers had raised concerns about the Challenger’s launch before it happened.
Challenger launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on January 28, 1986. The space shuttle Challenger was the second shuttle to reach space, in April 1983. Despite the technical and management changes that followed Challenger, the Columbia disaster in year 2003 proved that the Shuttle was a complex and unsafe machine, whose reliability depended on too many variable to be managed in a cost-effective manner. The biggest challenge for NASA was to win back America’s confidence in the Shuttle program. On 28 January 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after taking off.

The NASA space shuttle Challenger exploded on January 28, 1986, just 73 seconds after liftoff, bringing a devastating end to the spacecraft’s 10th mission. Shortly after liftoff, the space shuttle’s […] Much like the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, or the morning of September 11, 2001, most Americans remember where they were when they heard the news of the Challenger disaster. It was NASA’s first in-flight tragedy. In total, the spacecraft It successfully completed nine milestone missions during its nearly three years of service. The disaster grounded NASA’s space shuttle program for nearly three years. Learning from crisis: NASA and the Challenger disaster 233 lessons flowing from the Challenger disaster , which caused the demise of Columbia (see, e.g. “But look at how we flew after,” says Robert Cabana, former NASA astronaut and director of the Kennedy Space Center. “We could have prevented that from happening,” Cabana says. Much like the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, or the morning of September 11, 2001, most Americans remember where they were when they heard the news of the Challenger disaster.